NEW APPROACH TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 

BY

 

PEDO G.P OLOO 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © 2014
All rights reserved by Pedo G. P. Oloo

 

 

All rights reserved.  No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, graphic, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, recording, taping or by any information retrieval system, without prior permission in writing of the publisher.

 

 

You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer

 

 

 

ISBN:  978-9966-18180-0

 

 

 

Ariba Technologies & Book Publishers
P. O. Box 503-40600
Siaya –Kenya
Website: www.aribatecbp.com

 

 

Typeset by
Beatrice Adhiambo – Barons Computers (Siaya)
First published 2014

 

 

 

 

 

Dedicated to
my teachers – from whom I learned
and
my students of Mbaga  – from whom I continue to learn
and to my family,
most especially my sister
Cecilia Sewe
who financed my education and mentored the Pedo family,
my late parents
Joanes Pedo Aluodo and Getruda Aluoch Obwanda
and my dear wife
Beatrice
who stood by me during my most trying moments,
last but not least,  my late daughter
Stacy Aluoch
who was the love of my life

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedications ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...iiii
Table of Content ……………………………………………………………………………………………………....iv
Preface ………………………………………………………………………………………………………......…....vi
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………...........................................................vii
List of Abbreviations and acronyms ……………………………………………………………........………………...viii

  1. PAPER ONE…………………………………………………………………......................................             1
  2. Kenyan societies during the pre-colonial times ………………………………............................................           1
  3. Economic, social and political organization of Kenya societies……………..………....………………………       8

Citizenship and National integration 20

  1. Contact between Kenyan coast and the outside world upto 15th century….......……………………………… 28
  2. The Portuguese Rule along the East Coast…………………………………………………………………… 31
  3. The Omani Rule……………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
  4. Missionary Activities in Kenya………………………………………………………………………………... 38
  5. Constitution and constitution making exercise………………………….....…………………………………… 40
  6. Democracy and human rights democracy………………………………...…………………………………… 45
  7. European interest in Kenya……………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  8. African reaction to European invasion in Kenya………………………….....…………………………………. 52
  9. Company rule in Kenya………………………………………………………………………………………... 60
  10. Social and economic developments during the colonial period in Kenya…………...........……………………... 65
  11. Urbanization in the pre-colonial Kenya…………………………………………………..…………………… 74
  12. Political developments and the struggle for independence in Kenya (1919 – 1963)…………..........…………... 76
  13. Labour movement in Kenya during colonial era……….....……………………………………………………. 87
  14. Growth of nationalism in Kenya……………………………………………………………………………… 85
  15. Lives and contributions of Kenyan leaders…………………………………………………………………... 93
  16. Social, Economic and Political Developments in Kenya since independence….........………………………... 100
  17. Formation, structure and functions of government of Kenya…………………......………………………….. 109
  18. Government revenue and expenditure……………………………………………………………………... 137
  19. PAPER TWO……………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
  20. Introduction to history and government……………………………………………………………………. 141
  21. Sources of information on history and government……………………………………………………….. 142
  22. Early people……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146
  23. Development of agriculture………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
  24. Trade……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  25. Transport and communication………………………………………………………………………………. 171
  26. Development of science and industry………………………………………………………………………. 189
  27. Industrial revolution…………………………………………………………………………………………... 198
  28. Urbanization…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 207
  29. Social, economic and political organization of African societies…………………………………........………. 214
  30. Scramble and partition of Africa…………………………………………………………………………….. 219
  31. African response to European invasion…………………………………………………………………….. 227
  32. Colonial administration in Africa……………………………………………………………………………. 241
  33. Emergence and growth of nationalism in Africa……………………………………....……………………... 250
  34. Pan Africanism……………………………………………………………………………………………… 262
  35. International relations………………………………………………………………………………………… 266
  36. Social, economic and political developments in Africa since independence…………............…………………. 293
  37. Regional co-operations in Africa…………………………………………………………………………….. 298
  38. The electoral processes and functions of governments in other parts of the world…….............………………. 311

Examination techniques……………………………………………………………………........…………………. 320
Sample examination papers……………………………………………………......…………...………………….. 321
Sample marking scheme………………………………………………………………….......…………………… 331
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………...…………………… 354
Glossary of terms used in the Text…….....………………………………………………...……………………... 356
Subject Index………………………………………………………...…………………………………………… 359

 

PREFACE

The book is skillfully written and wholly covers the New History and Government syllabus succinctly.  The purpose of this book is to give the form four candidates a firm foundation in the Subject.  Paper 1 & 2 are covered separately and the topics are arranged according to how they are examined in the respective papers. Students, who have not covered the syllabus – from other classes, are advised to cover those topics only which are included in the syllabus of their classes. For this purpose, they should consult their teachers.  This arrangement is a departure from the past practice where topics are arranged according to class level and students who cannot distinguish the topics according to respective papers get confused during their preparation for examination.  Examination techniques and sample questions together with their answers are included at the back of the book to help the learners to gauge themselves and to prepare adequately for examination.  A glossary of words commonly used in History and Government and an index for quick reference are also provided.  This is a comprehensive book that adequately summaries the 8-4-4 History and Government syllabus for secondary schools.

The author of this book has a wealth of experience in handling History and Government, and in marking and setting exams. He is currently handling the form four candidates and heads the Department of Humanities in Bishop Okoth Mbaga Girls - Siaya.

Pedo G. P. Oloo (MBA, Bed (Hon.), Dip Ed.)

Siaya-Kenya

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

large number of individuals have contributed to this project.  I am thankful to all of them for their help and encouragement.  Like most text books, this book has also drawn from the work of a large number of researchers and authors in the field of History and Government.  My writings in this book have also been influenced by a number of standard and popular text books in the field.  I express my gratitude to all of them.

I express my appreciation to all my colleagues and students of Bishop Okoth Girls Mbaga for adopting this book, or for making suggestions for the improvement of the book, or for extending their support and encouragement.  I am particularly indebted to Sister Sarah Adipo who adopted the origin version of the book as a school text in Mbaga.  I also owe much tribute to Elisha Otieno who encouraged me to publish the book.  Without financial support from my dear sisters - Cecilia and Cony little could have been achieved in this project.

I would very much appreciated and sincerely acknowledge suggestions from academic colleagues and readers for improving the quality of the book.  I shall be happy to acknowledge the support of the adopters of the book.

This book is dedicated to my sister, Cecilia, who has always been a source of incessant motivation and prop up to me and who has extended her unstinted support to me.  I am thankful to my wife, Beatrice as well as my sons (Bryan, Viola, Edgar, Ian and Flavio) and my daughter Joy, for their endurance through several months that I spent in writing this book.

List of abbreviations and acronyms

A.D.                       After Death of Christ
ADC                      Agriculture Development Corporation
AEMO                   African elected members of Legislative
AG                         Attorney General
AFC                       Agriculture Finance Corporation
AIC                        African Inland Church
ANC                      African National Congress
APRM                   African Peer Review Mechanism
AU                         African Union
BSACo                  British South African Company
CCM                      Chama Cha Mapinduzi
CMS                       Church Mission Society
CBK                       Central Bank of Kenya
CDF                       Constituency Development Fund
CID                        Criminal Investigation Department
COMESA             Common Market for Eastern and Central Africa
CPP                        Convention Peoples’ Party
CYO                       Committee on Youth Organization
DFCK                    Development Finance Company of Kenya
DP                          Democratic Party
DRC                       Democratic Republic of Congo
EADB                    East African Development Bank
ESA                        European Space Agency
FRELIMO             Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
GEACo                 German East African Company
HEP                       Hydro electric power
IBEACo                 Imperial British East African Company
ICC                         International Criminal Court
ICDC                     Commercial Development Corporation
ICFTU                   International Confederation of Free Trade Union
ICJ                          International Court of Justice
IEBC                      Independent Electoral and Boundary Commission
ILO                         International Labour Organization
IMF                        International Monetary Fund
IUCEA                  Inter-University Council for East Africa
JSC                         Judicial Service Commission
KANU                   Kenya African National Union
KARI                     Kenya Research Institute
KASU                    Kenya African Study Union
KCC                       Kenya Cooperative Creameries
KDF                       Kenya Defense Forces
KFA                       Kenya Farmers Association
KPA                       Kenya Ports Authority
KICOMI                Kisumu Cotton Mills
KIE                         Kenya Industrial Estates
KIM                        Kenya Independent Movement
KLGWU               Kenya Local Government Workers Union
KNC                      Kenya National Congress
KNH                      Kenyatta National Hospital
KRA                       Kenya Revenue Authority
LBDA                    Lake Basin Development Authority
LVFO                     Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization
NCWK                  National Council of Women of Kenya
PAC                       Public Accounts Committee
PANA                   Pan African News Agency
PNU                      Party of National Unity
PIC                         Public Investment Committee
UAJ                        Union of African Journalists
UDENAMO        National Democratic Union of Mozambique
UGCC                   United Gold Coast Convention
UNAMI                African Union of Independent Mozambique
UNHCR               United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UNDP                   United Nations Development Programme
UNO                      United Nations Organization
NAM                     Non Aligned Movement
NASA                   United States National Aeronautics
NATO                   North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NEPAD                New Partnership for African development
NDP                      National Democratic Party
MANU                  Mozambique African National Union
MP                         Member of Parliament
OAU                      Organization of African Unity
OATUU                Organization of African Trade Union Unity
ODM                     Orange Democratic Movement
RWAFF                 Royal West African Frontier Force
SAP                        Structural Adjustment Programmes
SDA                       Seventh Day Adventist
TUC                       Trade Union Congress
UDI                        Unilateral Declaration of Independence


VAT                       Value Added Tax
YKA                       Young Kikuyu Association


ZANU                   Zimbabwe African National Union
ZAPU                    Zimbabwe African People’s Union

PAPER ONE

KENYAN SOCIETIES DURING THE PRE-COLONIAL TIMES


S

ome scholars are of the opinion that the first inhabitants of the present day Kenya were the hunter-gatherers groups, akin to the Khoikhoi and Hottentots (Bushmen) of South Africa. Dorobo which is used to refer to this group is actually not one tribe as contended by many people, but a group of closely related people.  Majority of them have been assimilated by the Cushitic and Nilotic communities who joined them much later and they have now lost their culture and language. 

It is reported that only about eight El Molo still speak the old language, but the rest speak either the Samburu or the Turkana language.  The Njemps, who are also of the old group, speak Samburu.  The same applies to the Ariaal Rendille deemed to be Eastern Cushites.  Though the Ariaal are not called Dorobo, they share a similar cultural history.  People who are related to them in Tanzania like the Mbugu and Iraqi speak the Southern Cushitic language.  Related groups in other parts, of Africa, for instance the Sandawe and Hadzapi in Tanzania, and the Khoisan in South Africa still exhibit the same characteristics and speak with the same click sound.

The Agikuyu refer to the original inhabitants of central part of Kenya as Athi which translated in their dialect meant ground people after the names of Athi plains and Athi River where they lived.  The Athi were probably Cushites or the original San.  The word Dorobo was conceived by the Maasai who referred to the original inhabitants of Rift Valley as Torobo, translated to mean poor people who did not keep livestock.  This word was taken in Swahili as Dorobo and in Kalenjin and Agikuyu as Ndorobo.

Various groups lamped together as Dorobo include: the Okiek (the largest and most distinct), the Mukogodo, the Mosiro, the Aramanick, the Mediak and the El molo.  The Dorobo Maasai (Okiek) is the metal worker clan of the Keekonyokie Maasai.  The Digiri groups of the Okiek live near Mount Kenya and some have now migrated to Maasai areas near the Tanzanian border.  The El molo are an Eastern Cushite group, related to the Somali and Rendille. 

Most of the Dorobo people are completely absorbed into the culture and language of their Nilotic patrons and no longer speak a unique language.  The Okiek, for example are bilingual in Kipsigis and Maasai with one of the languages being more of the mother tongue and the other being the second language.  Mukogodo Maasai consider themselves as a sub-tribe of the Maasai and speak their language (Maa) while the Mosiro and Mediak of Tanzania speak a language related to the one spoken by the Nandi of Kenya. 
 

  • Cushitic Speakers

There are two Cushitic communities which migrated into Kenya. These were the Eastern and the Southern Cushites. 

    • Southern Cushites

The Southern Cushites arrived earlier than the Eastern Cushites.  The Southern Cushites were made up of the Boni, Iraqi and Burungi of Tanzania and the Dahallo or Sanye of the lower Tana.  The Sanye (Dahallo) are the only remnants of the Southern Cushites in Kenya in the present day. 

    • Eastern Cushites

The Eastern Cushites include the Borana, Somali, Oromo, Gabra, Rendille and Burji.  These groups are said to have originated from either Ethiopia or Somalia and entered Kenya through the North Eastern part around 2000 to 1000 years ago.

Reasons which led to the migration and settlement of the Cushites in their present home areas included:

  • The Cushites were running away from internal conflicts
  • They were running away from external conflicts
  • They were moving into new areas to ease population pressure in their cradle land
  • They were searching for better grazing land for their animals
  • They were running away from the outbreak of disease
  • They migrated due to drought and famine in their original homeland
  • Some migrated due to their desire for  adventure

Groups of Cushites

Southern Cushites

Eastern Cushites

  • Boni, Iraqi and Burungi of Tanzania
  • Sanye or Dahallo of Kenya
  • Oromo
  • Gabra
  • Rendille
  • Somali
  • Borana
  • Burgi
 

  

Impact of the Migration of the Cushites into Kenya during the Pre-Colonial Period

  • The Cushites who owned livestock encouraged this practice in areas where they were settled.
  • Their settlement led to increased rivalry due to ownership of land.
  • Some Cushites who had been converted to Islam spread the religion in the areas where they settled,
  • The Cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu Communities who had settled at Shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya.
  • There was intermarried  between the Cushites and the communities who found them in the region
  • Trade developed between the Cushites and the communities they came into contact with - they exchanged livestock products for grains with the Bantu.
  • The Bantu borrowed some of their cultural practice like circumcision and age set system from the Cushites.  Iron making was also acquired from them.
  • Cushites acquired mixed farming from the Bantu while the Bantu adopted livestock farming from the Somali.

Impact of the Migration and Settlement of the Somali into Kenya By 1800

  • The Somali people intermarried with the people they came into contact with such as Pokomo and Boran.
  • The Somali formed military alliances with their cousins, Rendile - against the Turkana
  • The Somali taught the Bantus the art of circumcision and age set system
  • Demand for agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion of trade in the region.
  • Their settlement led to increased conflicts between the communities over scarce resources such as water and pasture.
  • Their migration and settlement led to the displacement and redistribution of people where they settled.
  • There was cultural exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact. For example, the neighbouring communities adopted Islam from the Somali.
  • The Somali assimilated some communities they came into contact with, for example the Oromo.
  • Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas, for example river valleys encouraged some of them to practice crop farming.
  • Bantu Speakers

The Bantu, whose migration started around A.D. 1000, migrated and entered Kenya in three groups namely:

  • The Western (Interlacustrine) Bantu

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